Animal Info - Peru


Contents

Threatened Species, Environmental and Social Data (Mammals, Biodiversity/Ecosystems, Population, Area/Land Use, Protected Lands, Economy, Education), References and Links


Threatened Species

Threatened Species: The following list includes all mammals which occur in Peru and are rated as Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) or Vulnerable (VU) in the 2005 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals.

  • Critically Endangered:
    • Anderson's Mouse Opossum (Marmosa andersoni). (Endemic to Peru.)
    • Short-tailed Chinchilla (Chinchilla brevicaudata). 
    • Spiny Rat Species (Makalata occasius). 
    • Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey (Oreonax flavicauda). (Endemic to Peru.) (Listed as Lagothrix flavicauda in 1996.)
  • Endangered:
    • Andean Cat (Oreailurus jacobita).
    • Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus).
    • Incan Little Mastiff Bat (Mormopterus phrudus). (Endemic to Peru.)
    • Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus).
    • Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis). 
    • Marine Otter (Lontra felina). (Listed as Lutra felina in 1996.)
    • Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque).
    • Pacarana (Dinomys branickii).
    • Peruvian Fish-eating Rat (Neusticomys peruviensis). (Endemic to Peru.)
    • Ucayali Spiny Mouse (Scolomys ucayalensi). (Endemic to Peru.)
  • Vulnerable:
    • Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
    • Andean Hairy Armadillo (Chaetophractus nationi).
    • Andean Night Monkey (Aotus miconax). (Endemic to Peru.)
    • Andean Titi Monkey (Callicebus oenanthe). (Endemic to Peru.)
    • Atacama Myotis ( Bat) (Myotis atacamensis).
    • Behni's Big-eared Bat (Micronycteris behnii).
    • Black-shouldered Opossum (Caluromysiops irrupta).
    • Blunt-eared Bat (Tomopeas ravus). (Endemic to Peru.)
    • Boto (Amazon River Dolphin) (Inia geoffrensis).
    • Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus).
    • Bushy-tailed Opossum (Glironia venusta).
    • Carriker's Round-eared Bat (Tonatia carrikeri).
    • Disk-winged Bat Species (Thyroptera lavali). (Endemic to Peru.)
    • Emilia's Short-tailed Opossum (Monodelphis emiliae).
    • Fraternal Fruit-eating Bat (Artibeus fraterculus).
    • Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).
    • Goeldi's Marmoset (Callimico goeldii).
    • Gray Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix cana). (Recognized as a subspecies, Lagothrix lagotricha cana, in 1996, rather than as a species as in 2000.)
    • Greater Long-tailed Bat (Choeroniscus periosus).
    • Hairy Long-nosed Armadillo (Dasypus pilosus). (Endemic to Peru.)
    • Handley's Nectar Bat (Lonchophylla handleyi).
    • Harmless Serotine ( Bat) (Eptesicus innoxius).
    • Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).
    • Kalinowski's Mastiff Bat (Mormopterus kalinowskii).
    • Lesser Yellow-shouldered Bat (Sturnira nana). (Endemic to Peru.)
    • Long-haired Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth).
    • Long-snouted Bat (Platalina genovensium). (Endemic to Peru.)
    • Lowland Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii). (Recognized as a subspecies, Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii, in 1996, rather than as a species as in 2000.)
    • Marsh Deer (Blastocerus dichotomus).
    • Osgood's Short-tailed Opossum (Monodelphis osgoodi).
    • Small Hocicudo ( Mouse) (Oxymycterus hiska). (Endemic to Peru.)
    • Smoky Bat (Amorphochilus schnablii).
    • Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus).
    • Theresa's Short-tailed Opossum (Monodelphis theresa).
    • Western Nectar Bat (Lonchophylla hesperia).
  • Other:

Environmental and Social Data

Mammals

Total number of species: 344 (Groombridge & Jenkins 1994)
Number of endemic species: 45 (Groombridge & Jenkins 1994)
Number of threatened species: 1996: 46 (13.4 % of total species) (IUCN 1996); 2000: 50 (14.5 % of total species) (IUCN 2000)

Biodiversity/Ecosystems

Peru contains portions of the Northern Andean Montane Forests, Andean Yungas, Varzea Flooded Forests, Napo Moist Forests, Rio Negro-Jurua Moist Forests, Southwestern Amazonian Moist Forests, Tumbesian & North Inter-Andean Valleys Dry Forests, North Andean Paramo, Upper Amazon & Orinoco Rivers & Streams, Varzea & Igapo Freshwater Ecosystems, High Andean Lakes, and Peru Current Global 200 Ecoregions (Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999)
Peru contains portions of the Tropical Andes Global Biodiversity Hotspot (Cons. Intl. 1999a)
Peru is a Megadiversity Country (Cons. Intl. 1999b)

Population

Population in 1995: 23,981,000 (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Population density in 1995: 18.7 people/sq km (48.3 people/sq mi) (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Population in 1998: 26,111,110 (World Almanac 1999)
Average population growth rate, 1980 - 1990: 2.3 % (World Bank 1992)

Area/Land Use

Area: 1,285,217 sq km (496,225 sq mi) (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Percentages of primary world ecosystem types:

  • Other Coastal Aquatic: 3 %
  • Desert and Semi-desert: 5 %
  • Polar and Alpine: 8 %
  • Grass and Shrub: 18 %
  • Crop and Settlements: 6 %
  • Interrupted Woods: 19 %
  • Major Forests: 41 %

(Groombridge 1992)

Percent of land area classified as the following degree of human disturbance: Low: 60 %, Medium: 36 %, High: 4 % (WRI 1994)

Protected Lands

Area: 26,880 sq km (10,376 sq mi) (Groombridge 1992)
Percent of land protected: 1.97 % totally protected, 0.12 % partially protected, 2.09 % totally or partially protected (Groombridge 1992)

Economy

Per capita GNP ($ U.S.) (1991): $1,065 (WRI 1994)
Per capita GDP ($ U.S.) (1996): $3,800 (World Almanac 1999)

Education

Percent adult literacy: Female: 79 % (1990), 60 % (1970); Male: 92 % (1990), 81 % (1970) (WRI 1994)


References and Links

References: Cons. Intl. 1999a, Cons. Intl. 1999b, Groombridge 1992, Groombridge & Jenkins 1994, IUCN 1994, IUCN 1996, IUCN 2000, IUCN 2003a, Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995, Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999, World Almanac 1999, World Bank 1992, WRI 1994

General Links (After you get to one of these sites, click on the link for Peru): CIA World Factbook, Foreign Embassies of Washington, D.C., Library of Congress - Country Studies, University of Texas - Country Maps, Washington Post - Countries, World Resources Institute - Country ProfilesLinks for PeruProject GEO - Peru (Spanish), The Nature Conservancy - Peru, WWF - Northern Andes (Spanish)


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Last modified: February 19, 2006;

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