Animal Info - Venezuela


Contents

Threatened Species, Environmental and Social Data (Mammals, Biodiversity/Ecosystems, Population, Area/Land Use, Protected Lands, Economy, Education), References and Links


Threatened Species

Threatened Species: The following list includes all mammals which occur in Venezuela and are rated as Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) or Vulnerable (VU) in the 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals

  • Endangered:
    • Dryland Mouse Opossum (Marmosa xerophila).
    • Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus).
    • Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis). 
    • Musso's Fish-eating Rat (Neusticomys mussoi). (Endemic to Venezuela.)
    • Pacarana (Dinomys branickii).
    • Slim-faced Slender Mouse Opossum (Marmosops cracens). (Endemic to Venezuela.)
    • Variegated Spider Monkey (Ateles hybridus). (Recognized as a subspecies, Ateles belzebuth hybridus, in 1996.) 
    • Venezuelan Fish-eating Rat (Neusticomys venezuelae).
  • Vulnerable:
    • Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
    • Amazonian Sac-winged Bat (Saccopteryx gymnura). 
    • American Manatee (Trichechus manatus)
    • Boto (Amazon River Dolphin) (Inia geoffrensis).
    • Brown Hairy Dwarf Porcupine (Sphiggurus vestitus).
    • Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus).
    • Carriker's Round-eared Bat (Tonatia carrikeri).
    • Colombian Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lugens). (Recognized as a subspecies, Lagothrix lagotricha lugens, in 1996.)  
    • Ega Long-tongued Bat (Scleronycteris ega).
    • Fernandez's Sword-nosed Bat (Lonchorhina fernandezi). (Endemic to Venezuela.)
    • Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).
    • Greater Ghost Bat (Diclidurus ingens).
    • Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).
    • Long-haired Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth).
    • Pittier's Crab-eating Rat (Ichthyomys pittieri). (Endemic to Venezuela.)
    • Southern Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae).
    • Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus).
    • Sperm Whale (Physeter catodon).
    • Wood Sprite Gracile Mouse Opossum (Gracilinanus dryas). (Endemic to Venezuela.)
  • Other:

Environmental and Social Data

Mammals

Total number of species: 305 (Groombridge & Jenkins 1994)
Number of endemic species: 16 (Groombridge & Jenkins 1994)
Number of threatened species: 1996: 24 (8 % of total species) (IUCN 1996); 2000: 27 (9 % of total species) (IUCN 2000

Biodiversity/Ecosystems

Venezuela contains the Coastal Venezuela Montane Forests Global 200 Ecoregion as well as portions of the Northern Andean Montane Forests, Andean Yungas, Varzea Flooded Forests, Rio Negro-Jurua Moist Forests, Guayanan Forests, Llanos Savannas, North Andean Paramo, Guayanan Highlands Freshwater Ecosystems, Upper Amazon & Orinoco Rivers & Streams, Varzea & Igapo Freshwater Ecosystems, Orinoco-Amazon Mangroves & Coastal Swamps, and Southern Caribbean Sea Global 200 Ecoregions (Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999)
Venezuela contains portions of the Tropical Andes Global Biodiversity Hotspot (Cons. Intl. 1999a)
Venezuela is a Megadiversity Country (Cons. Intl. 1999b)

Population

Population in 1995: 21,844,000 (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Population density in 1995: 24.0 people/sq km (62.0 people/sq mi) (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Population in 1998: 22,803,409 (World Almanac 1999)
Average population growth rate, 1980 - 1990: 2.7 % (World Bank 1992)

Area/Land Use

Area: 912,049 sq km (352,144 sq mi) (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Percentages of primary world ecosystem types:

  • Other Coastal Aquatic: 3 %
  • Major Wetland: 5 %
  • Desert and Semi-desert: 1 %
  • Grass and Shrub: 49 %
  • Crop and Settlements: 7 %
  • Interrupted Woods: 9 %
  • Major Forests: 27 %

(Groombridge 1992)

Percent of land area classified as the following degree of human disturbance: Low: 0 %, Medium: 79 %, High: 21 % (WRI 1994)

Protected Lands

Area: 283,140 sq km (109,292 sq mi) (Groombridge 1992)
Percent of land protected: 15.17 % totally protected, 15.87 % partially protected, 31.04 % totally or partially protected (Groombridge 1992)

Economy

Per capita GNP ($ U.S.) (1991): $2,728 (WRI 1994)
Per capita GDP ($ U.S.) (1996): $9,000 (World Almanac 1999)

Education

Percent of females in secondary education (1989): 62 % (World Bank 1992)
Percent adult literacy: Female: 90 % (1990), 71 % (1970); Male: 87 % (1990), 79 % (1970) (WRI 1994)


References and Links

References: Cons. Intl. 1999a, Cons. Intl. 1999b, Groombridge 1992, Groombridge & Jenkins 1994, IUCN 1994, IUCN 1996, IUCN 2000, IUCN 2003a, Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995, Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999, World Almanac 1999, World Bank 1992, WRI 1994

General Links (After you get to one of these sites, click on the link for Venezuela): CIA World Factbook, Foreign Embassies of Washington, D.C., Library of Congress - Country Studies, University of Texas - Country Maps, Washington Post - Countries, World Resources Institute - Country ProfilesLinks for VenezuelaThe Nature Conservancy - Venezuela, WWF - Northern Andes (Spanish)


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Last modified: April 11, 2004;

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