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Animal Info - Bawean Deer

(Other Names: 马威安猪鹿, 印度豚鹿, バウエアンホッグジカ, Bawean Hog Deer, Bawean-Schweinshirsch, Cerf-cochon de Bawean, Ciervo de Kuhl, Ciervo Porquerizo de Kuhl, Kuhl's Deer, Kuhl's Hog Deer, Kuhlhirsch)

Axis kuhlii (A. porcinus kuhlii, Cervus k.)

Status: Endangered


Contents

1. Profile (Picture)
2. Tidbits
3. Status and Trends (IUCN Status, Countries Where Currently Found, Population Estimates, History of Distribution, Threats and Reasons for Decline)
4. Data on Biology and Ecology (Size, Habitat, Gestation Period, Birth Season, Diet, Behavior, Social Organization)
5. References


Profile

Picture: Bawean Deer (Huffman 2004)

Hog deer are heavy-set and compact, standing only about 28" high at the shoulder. They are generally found in riverine habitats, marshes and swamps with tall grasses. Axis deer are predominantly grazers, though they occasionally browse and will eat fallen flowers and fruits of forest trees. Where they are undisturbed they may form small herds; elsewhere they are mainly solitary. Axis deer normally rest during the hotter part of the day and move about at dawn and dusk. They may become nocturnal in the summer, or when molested by people.

The Bawean deer is endemic to 520 sq km (200 sq mi) Bawean Island, Indonesia in the Java Sea.

Hunting and habitat reduction due to expansion of teak plantations are the main threats to the Bawean deer.


Tidbits

*** The name "hog deer" arises from its habit of crashing through the undergrowth with its head down like a wild pig, rather than leaping over obstacles like other deer.

*** Axis deer in general take readily to water and are said to be good swimmers.


Status and Trends

IUCN Status:

  • 1970's - 1980's: Rare
  • 1994: Endangered
  • 1996 - 2004: Endangered (Criteria: D) (IUCN 2004)

Countries Where the Bawean Deer Is Currently Found:

2004: Occurs in Indonesia (Bawean Island) (IUCN 2004).

Population Estimates:

[Note: Figures given are for wild populations only.]

History of Distribution:

The Bawean deer is endemic to 520 sq km (200 sq mi) Bawean Island, Indonesia in the Java Sea.

Distribution Map (8 Kb GIF) (Huffman 2004)

Threats and Reasons for Decline:

Hunting and habitat reduction due to expansion of teak plantations.


Data on Biology and Ecology

Size:

Hog deer stand only about 28" high at the shoulder.

Habitat:

Hog deer are generally found in riverine habitats, marshes and swamps with tall grass.

The Bawean deer is one of the species that live in the Sundaland Biodiversity Hotspot (Cons. Intl. 2005).

Gestation Period:

Hog deer have a gestation period of 8 months.

Birth Season:

April and May.

Diet:

Axis deer are predominantly grazers, though they occasionally browse and will eat fallen flowers and fruits of forest trees.

Behavior:

Axis deer normally rest during the hotter part of the day and move about at dawn and dusk. They may become nocturnal in the summer, or when molested by people.

Social Organization:

Where they are undisturbed they form small herds; otherwise they are mainly solitary.


References

Burton & Pearson 1987, Cons. Intl. 2005, Grimwood 1976, Huffman 2004, IUCN 1994, IUCN 1996, IUCN 2000, IUCN 2003a, IUCN 2004, Nowak & Paradiso 1983, Oryx 1978b, Schaller 1967


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Last modified: March 5, 2005;

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