Animal Info - Lion-tailed Macaque

(Other Names: Arakkan, Chingala, Karangu, Karingode, Kondamachu, Kuram, Macaca Leonina, Macaco Barbudo, Macaque à Queue de Lion, Macaque Ouandérou, Neel Bandar, Nella Manthi, Ouandérou, Siah Bandar, Singalika, Wanderoo)

Macaca silenus

Status: Endangered


Contents

1. Profile (Picture)
2. Tidbits
3. Status and Trends (IUCN Status, Countries Where Currently Found, Population Estimates, History of Distribution, Threats and Reasons for Decline)
4. Data on Biology and Ecology (Weight, Habitat, Age to Maturity, Gestation Period, Diet, Behavior, Social Organization, Density and Range, Minimum Viable Population)
5. References


Profile

Pictures: Lion-tailed Macaque #1 (32 Kb JPEG); Lion-tailed Macaque #2 (22 Kb JPEG) (Arkive)

The lion-tailed macaque weighs 7 - 15 kg (15 - 33 lb). It is found in tropical evergreen forest, where it is omnivorous and diurnal and primarily arboreal. Groups of lion-tailed macaques range from 4 - 34 individuals. They usually contain about 10 - 20 individuals, including 1 - 3 adult males.

The lion-tailed macaque has never been common. By 1971 it was known to occur only in the southern third of India, generally in the Western Ghats. In 1984 it was thought to occur in scattered locations in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The major reason for its decline appears to have been habitat loss due to the spread of agriculture and teak, coffee, tea and other plantations. Formerly it was extensively captured for the pet trade, zoos and research, as well as for use in Oriental medicine.


Tidbits

*** The lion-tailed macaque seems to be unable to adapt to human settlement; for example, it apparently doesn't travel through plantations or use them as habitat.


Status and Trends

IUCN Status:

Countries Where the Lion-tailed Macaque Is Currently Found:

2004: Occurs in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu) (IUCN 2004).

Population Estimates:

[Note: Figures given are for wild populations only.]

History of Distribution:

The lion-tailed macaque has never been common. By 1971 it was known to occur only in the southern third of India, generally in the Western Ghats. In 1984 it was thought to occur in scattered locations in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, from the northern Kanara district of Karnataka in the north to the Ashambu Hills near the tip of the Indian subcontinent in the south (Groombridge 1984). The population is severely fragmented (IUCN 2002).

Threats and Reasons for Decline:

The major reason for its decline appears to have been habitat loss due to the spread of agriculture and teak, coffee, tea and other plantations. Formerly it was extensively captured for the pet trade, zoos and research, as well as for use in Oriental medicine.


Data on Biology and Ecology

Weight:

The lion-tailed macaque weighs 7 - 15 kg (15 - 33 lb).

Habitat:

The lion-tailed macaque is found in tropical evergreen forest.

The lion-tailed macaque is found in both the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka Biodiversity Hotspot (Cons. Intl. 2005) and the Western Ghats Moist Forests Global 200 Ecoregion. (Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999)

Age to Maturity:

5 years (female); 8 years (male).

Gestation Period:

Gestation in all macaques is about 5.5 months.

Diet:

The lion-tailed macaque is omnivorous.

Behavior:

The lion-tailed macaque is mainly arboreal, although it does occasionally descend to the ground. All macaques are primarily diurnal.

Social Organization:

Groups of lion-tailed macaques range from 4 - 34 individuals. They usually contain about 10 - 20 individuals, including 1 - 3 adult males.

Density and Range:

Density:

  • A population density of 0.25 individuals/sq km (0.65 individuals/sq mi) has been reported.

Range:

  • Estimated group range: 1 - 2 sq km (2.6 - 5.2 sq mi) over a 1 - 2 month period; 5 sq km (13 sq mi) over a year.
  • One group had a core area of 300 hectares (750 acres) that was rarely entered by other groups.

(Nowak & Paradiso 1983)

Minimum Viable Population:

Minimum viable population density: 3.8 individuals/sq km (10 individuals/sq mi) (Silva & Downing 1994).


References

Arkive, AZA 1998, Burton & Pearson 1987, Choudhury 1988, Cons. Intl. 2005, Curry-Lindahl 1972, Groombridge 1984, Hill 1971, IUCN 1994, IUCN 1996, IUCN 2000, IUCN 2003a, IUCN 2004, Macdonald 1984, Nowak & Paradiso 1983, Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999, Oryx 1979c, Oryx 1981b, Silva & Downing 1994


Top of Page | Search This Site

Home | Rarest Mammals | Species Index | Species Groups Index | Country Index | Links


Last modified: June 4, 2005;

© 1999 - 2014 Animal Info. Endangered animals of the world. SJ Contact Us.